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Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal November 6, Now in spite of their fascinating achievements in the avenues of rich culture and sophisticated agricultural practices, our popular notions tend to gravitate towards the Aztec grisly practices entailing human sacrifice.
While the latter was indeed a part of the Aztec domain, there was more to these people than their ritualistic penchant for blood suggests. To that end, let us have a look at the origins and history of the Aztec warrior culture that paved the way for one of the greatest empires in the Western Hemisphere.
In fact, the legacy of the Aztecs directly relates to that of the Mexica culture, one of the nomadic Chichimec people that entered the Valley of Mexico by circa AD.
The Mexica were both farmers and hunter-gatherers, but they were mostly known by their brethren to be fierce warriors.
And on the latter front, they were tested — by remnants of the Toltec Empire. In fact, according to one version of their legacy, it was the Toltec warlords who pursued the Mexica and forced them to retreat to an island.
Suffice it to say, in these initial years when Tenochtitlan was still considered as a backwater settlement, the Mexica were not counted among the political elite of the region.
As such many of them peddled their status as fearsome warriors and inducted themselves as elite mercenaries of the numerous rival Toltec factions.
This shift in the balance of power in their favor fueled the Mexica to a dominant position in the region. And together banding with their culturally-aligned, Nahuatl-speaking brethren from the allied cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan, the Mexica nobles and princes formed what is known as the Aztec Triple Alliance or the Aztec Empire.
This super-entity ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from the 15th century till the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.
As we can gather from the earlier entry, the Aztecs pertaining to an alliance of Nahuatl -speaking people were first and foremost a warrior society.
Relating to the last part of the statement, while the nobles and high-ranking members of the Aztec society played their crucial roles in both the political and military affairs, the Aztec military structure at least during the first half of 15th century theoretically adhered to the ideals of meritocracy.
Simply put, a commoner could also rise up to the rank of an Aztec warrior, on the condition that he proved his ferocity and valor in battle by not only killing but also capturing a certain number of enemies.
One of the first tasks the small boy had to perform related to the intensive physical labor of carrying heavy goods and crucial food supplies from the central marketplace.
A picture from the Codex Mendoza depicting the progression of an Aztec warrior as they grow in stature based on their captives from battle. It was common for these positions to be held by nobles who were afforded much more opportunity for the upper echelon of positions than the Aztec commoners.
It was also common that some of the high ranking military officers in the Aztec military were priests also. A good example of this is the Tlacochcalcatl, known as the Keeper of the house of darts who was a general rank.
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As they traveled throughout the empire and beyond to trade with groups outside the Aztec's control, the king would often request that the pochteca return from their route with both general and specific information.
General information, such as the perceived political climate of the areas traded in, could allow the king to gauge what actions might be necessary to prevent invasions and keep hostility from culminating in large-scale rebellion.
As the Aztec's empire expanded, the merchant's role gained increasing importance. Because it became harder to obtain information about distant sites in a timely way, especially for those outside the empire, the feedback and warning received from merchants were invaluable.
Often, they were the key to the Aztec army's successful response to external hostility. If a merchant was killed while trading, this was a cause for war.
The Aztecs' rapid and violent retaliation following this event is testament to the immense importance that the merchants had to the Aztec empire.
Merchants were very well respected in Aztec society. When merchants traveled south, they transported their merchandise either by canoe or by slaves, who would carry a majority of the goods on their backs.
If the caravan was likely to pass through dangerous territory, Aztec warriors accompanied the travelers to provide much-needed protection from wild animals and rival cultures.
In return, merchants often provided a military service to the empire by spying on the empire's many enemies while trading in the enemy's cities.
Once the Aztecs had decided to conquer a particular city Altepetl , they sent an ambassador from Tenochtitlan to offer the city protection.
They would showcase the advantages cities would gain by trading with the empire. The Aztecs, in return, asked for gold or precious stones for the Emperor.
They were given 20 days to decide their request. If they refused, more ambassadors were sent to the cities.
However, these ambassadors were used as up front threats. Instead of trade, these men would point out the destruction the empire could and would cause if the city were to decline their offer.
They were given another 20 days. There were no more warnings. The cities were destroyed and their people were taken as prisoners. The Aztecs used a system in which men stationed approximately 4.
For example, the runners might be sent by the king to inform allies to mobilize if a province began to rebel.
Messengers also alerted certain tributary cities of the incoming army and their food needs, carried messages between two opposing armies, and delivered news back to Tenochtitlan about the outcome of the war.
While messengers were also used in other regions of Mesoamerica, it was the Aztecs who apparently developed this system to a point of having impressive communicative scope.
Prior to mobilization, formal spies called quimichtin lit. Mice were sent into the territory of the enemy to gather information that would be advantageous to the Aztecs.
Specifically, they were requested to take careful note of the terrain that would be crossed, fortification used, details about the army, and their preparations.
These spies also sought out those who were dissidents in the area and paid them for information. The quimichtin traveled only by night and even spoke the language and wore the style of clothing specific to the region of the enemy.
Due to the extremely dangerous nature of this job they risked a torturous death and the enslavement of their family if discovered , these spies were amply compensated for their work.
The Aztecs also used a group of trade spies, known as the naualoztomeca. The naualoztomeca were forced to disguise themselves as they traveled.
They sought after rare goods and treasures. The naualoztomeca were also used for gathering information at the markets and reporting the information to the higher levels of pochteca.
Ahtlatl : perhaps lit. This weapon was considered by the Aztecs to be suited only for royalty and the most elite warriors in the army, and was usually depicted as being the weapon of the Gods.
Murals at Teotihuacan show warriors using this effective weapon and it is characteristic of the Mesoamerican cultures of central Mexico.
Warriors at the front lines of the army would carry the ahtlatl and about three to five tlacochtli, and would launch them after the waves of arrows and sling projectiles as they advanced into battle before engaging into melee combat.
The ahtlatl could also throw spears as its name implies "spear thrower". Tlacochtli : The "darts" launched from an Atlatl, not so much darts but more like big arrows about 5.
Tipped with obsidian, fish bones, or copper heads. Archers in the Aztec army were designated as Tequihua. Through war, the Aztec Empire gained tribute from conquered enemies.
Expanding the empire through further conquests strengthened the empire and brought more riches in tribute. For this reason, the emperor rewarded successful warriors of both classes with honors, the right to wear certain garments in distinctive colors, nobility for the commoners and higher status for nobles and land.
Every Aztec warrior could, if he captured enemy warriors, advance far in society. Rank in the military required bravery and skill on the battlefield and capture of enemy soldiers.
The Aztec Empire heavily relied on warfare to bring more domains under its control and to expand its power. For this purpose, various ranks and titles for Aztec warriors existed.
These were usually meant to recognise the bravery of the warrior and their tact on the battlefield. Among the most eminent Aztec warrior units were the Eagle and Jaguar warriors.